Ethiopian women's Organization For All Wo​men

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WELCOME TO ETHIOPIAN WOMEN'S ORGANIZATION


Ethiopian Woman's Organization has worked tirelessly to help those that have been abused, neglected and is in need of help and compassion.Please recognize all the women and men who dedicate their time and effort to help those who are less fortunate or in need for their efforts to help bring peace to someone's life.

Please join us hand in hand to make a difference.

የዓላማችን አንባር እናት ልጇን ይዛሴቶች በዚህ ዓለም ላይ በምንኖርበት ግዜ ማንኛውም ሴት ሰባዓዊ መብቷ ተጠብቆ ከወንዶች ጋር በእኩልነት ደረጃ በትዳር ዓለም ውስት ሁነ በሥራ ወይንም በማንኛውም ቦታ ከወንዶች ጋር በእኩልነት ደረጃ እንድትታይና ተባብረው እንዲኖሩ ነው ።እኛም በዳላስና በፎርት ዎርዝ የምንገኘው የኢትዮጵያ የሴቶች ድርጅት አላማ ያልተስተካከለውን ለማስተካከል የልታየቸውን ለማሳየት ለማያውቁት ለማስተማር ትምህርት ለመስጠት ሲሆን ከዚህም በላይ ልዩ ልዩ ችግር ያላቸውን ሴቶችም ሆነ ወንዶች ለመርዳት እንጥራለን እናቶችም ይህን ዓላማ በመከተል የሴቶች መብትና እኩልነት ሚዛን ምን ያህል መሆኑን ማስተማርና ለወደፊቱ ትውልድ እንዲያስተላልፉ የምንግዜም ትግላችን ነው ።

​በዳላስና በፎርትዎርዝ የሚገኘው የኢትዮጵያ የሴቶች ድርጅት።

ETHIOPIAN WOMEN'S ORGANIZATION 4 ALL WOMEN

www.Ethiowomen.org

Rural Ethiopian Women Suffer From Traditional Practices
By Yohannes Ruphael, Panafrican News Agency, 19 December 2000


Addis Ababa—In the absence of piped water, Ethiopian rural women are obliged to travel long distances every day to fetch water from wells which are usually very far apart.However, this daily exercise exposes them to virulent abductors and rapists.Fifteen-year-old Alemitu Abera who lived in a village some 150-km west of the capital Addis Ababa, was one such victim.I was forced by the community elders to marry this old man who abducted me on my way to fetch water. I never saw him before and I did not like him at all. So I had to run to Addis Ababa.she recounted.Alemitu is now a bar maid in Kazanchis, a popular area known for its abundant bars and night clubs.Newspaper reports recently said 29 girls were abducted from a village school near Addis Ababa.It is a pity that abductors get away with their crimes because of the customary mediations of community elders, lamented a staunch feminist.

There are 30 million women in Ethiopia’s rural population of 54 million. The country’s aggregate population is estimated at 63 million people.Almost all rural women have a subordinate role to play in the society.Gender discrimination exists. It is part of the social system and runs through all aspects of life at family and household levels; community as well as at institutional levels, explains Bogalech Aldemu of the Women’s Affairs Department at the Prime Minister Office.

​Almost everywhere in rural Ethiopia, land ownership is patriarchal and land is registered in a man’s name who inherits it from his parents.Most married women have access to the use of land but in the majority of cases, control remains in the hands of their husbands.According to a UNICEF report, women in rural Ethiopia usually work 15-18 hours per day and are responsible for over half of subsistence agricultural production.In addition, women mostly undertake the most time consuming domestic chores, which contribute to the deterioration of their health condition and leaves them with precious little time for child care and rearing. the report adds.With 200 deaths per 1,000 live-births, Ethiopia ranks among the bottom 20 nations in under five mortality.Statistics reveal that 17,000 women die each year as a result of complications arising from pregnancy.Some 511,000 children die before their fifth birthday.Over 5 million children are underweight, and over 6 million are stunted. Daily per capita calorie intake is only 1,621, according to the Ethiopian Nutrition Institute.Most rural women, especially the young ones who run away to urban centres and especially to the capital, Addis Ababa, eventually end up becoming prostitutes .They run away to cities mainly to escape traditional practices.Rural girls are given out in marriage as early as 12, 13, or 14 years. The couple’s parents generally arrange such marriages.

​I was married off at 12, just some months after I was circumcised. I had not even recovered from the pain when my parents married me according to tradition; and I could not live with the husband who was much older and beats me all the time. So I had to run away to Addis Ababa, says Mehert Lemma a bar owner in Kazanchis.Female genital mutilation is still widely practised in both rural and urban Ethiopia.According to a study, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of Ethiopian women whose population is estimated at 30 million, are genitally mutilated, with an estimated 4 million undergoing infibulation.Although the National Committee of Traditional Mal- practices is doing its level best in its anti-female genital mutilation campaign, so far its efforts seem to have fallen on deaf ears.

We have to abide by our tradition. Women have to be circumcised to keep them subservient, obedient and protect them from evil spirit. All of my four daughters and my grand daughters have been circumcised, says 60 year-old Fantu Belay proudly.he pain was horrible. I could not go against the wishes of my parents, besides I did not want to be a laughing stock in my village, recounted Mehret Lemma, adding, my parents and the old woman who performed the terrible circumcision are to blame; I still feel the pain after sex.According to the World Health Organisation, female genital mutilation causes both immediate and long term health complications affecting women’s physical and mental well being.Bleeding, shocks, infections, HIV-AIDS are among the immediate health problems of genital mutilation, says a medical doctor.

​The National Committee on traditional mal-practices and other concerned NGO’s are making efforts to bring about behavioural change in the society with the participation of the mass media, religious leaders and traditional healers in dispelling the myth surrounding female genital mutilation.It is an up hill battle! a foreign woman who works for an international NGO sighs furiously. She fails to understand the deeply embedded tradition of the Ethiopian society.Although the Ethiopian constitution stipulates that the the state shall enforce the right of women to eliminate the influence of harmful customs, there seems to be a long way to go before any change of attitude is brought about in this conservative Ethiopian society.Copyright © 2000 Panafrican News Agency. Distributed by allAfrica.com. For information about the content or for permission to redistribute, publish or use for broadcast, contact the publisher.


There have been few studies concerning women in Ethiopia. Historically, elite women in Ethiopia have been visible as administrators and warriors. 
This never translated into any benefit to improve the rights of women, but it had meant that women could inherit and own property, and act as advisors on important communal matters. As late as the first part of the nineteenth century, Queen Menen consort of Emperor Iyassu IV had decisive role in running the empire.

Workit and Mestayit regents to their minor sons have been held responsible for their provinces. They owed their rights to property because of a special type of land tenure that expected tenants to serve as militia to overlords, irrespective of gender. Women lost this possibilities during the changes in early twentieth century, notably the introduction of 'modernity' along with European notions of 'lady like' behavior.

The downward trend to impoverishment has finally led many observers to comment only on physical hardships that Ethiopian womenexperience throughout their lives. Such hardship involves carrying loads over long distances, grinding corn manually, working in the homestead, raising children, andcooking. Female genital mutilation is also practiced by many of the ethnic groups. Ethiopian women traditionally have suffered sociocultural and economic discriminationand have had fewer opportunities than men for personal growth, education, and employment.

​Even the civil code affirmed the woman's inferior position, and such rights as ownership of property and inheritance varied from one ethnic group to another.[3]As in other traditional societies, in Ethiopia a woman's worth is measured in terms of her role as a mother and wife. Over 85 percent of Ethiopian women reside in rural areas, where peasant families are engaged primarily in subsistence agriculture. Rural women are integrated into the rural economy, which is basically labor-intensive and which exacts a heavy physical toll on all, including children. The Ethiopian Revolution had little impact on the lives of rural women. Land reform did not change their subordinate status, which was based on deep-rooted traditional values and beliefs.

An improvement in economic conditions would improve the standard of living of women, but real change would require a transformation of the attitudes of governments and men regarding women.[3]An Ethiopian girl in the northern Tigray Region.There have been some changes for women in urban areas, where education, health care, and employment outside the home have become more available. Although a few women with higher education have found professional employment, most hold low-paying jobs. About 40 percent of employed women in urban areas worked in the service sector, mainly in hotels, restaurants, and bars, according to a 1976 government survey.

Employment in production and related areas (such as textiles and food processing) accounted for 25 percent of the female work force, followed by sales, which accounted for about 11 percent. The survey also showed that women factory workers in Addis Ababa earned about a quarter of the wages men earned for the same type of work. These differences existed despite a 1975 proclamation stipulatingequal pay for equal work for men and women.[3]Following the Ethiopian Revolution, women made some gains in economic and political areas. The Revolutionary Ethiopian Women's Association (REWA), which claimed a membership of over 5 million, took an active part in educating women.

​It encouraged the creation of women's organizations in factories, local associations, and in the civil service. Some women participated in local organizations and in peasant associations and kebeles. However, the role of women was limited at the national level. In 1984, for example, the government selected only one woman as a full member of the Central Committee of the Workers' Party of Ethiopia. Of the 2,000 delegates who attended the party's inaugural congress in 1984, only 6 percent were women.[3]On a more positive note, the Derg could claim success in increasing literacy among women.

​The enrollment of women in primary and secondary schools increased from abou​t 32 percent in 1974/75 to 39 percent in 1985/86, although the rate of enrollment of urban women far exceeded the rate for rural women.[3]Following the creation of the Federal Republic in 1995, the Ministry of Women's Affairs was created. As of 30 October 2009,Muferiat Kamil is the Minister.[4]References[edit]Jump up^ "Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. 2013. p. 156.Jump up^ "The Global Gender Gap Report 2013". World Economic Forum. pp. 12–13.^ Jump up to:a b c d e Abate, Yohannis. "The Role of Women". A Country Study: Ethiopia (Thomas P. Ofcansky and LaVerle Berry, editors). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (1991). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.[1].Jump up^ "House Approves Appointment Of Nine Ministers" (accessed 14 April 2009)Gender Issues in Ethiopia, Tsehai Berhane-Selassie (editor) Addis Ababa University, 1991.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia​

Women in Ethiopia

WOMEN OF POWER IN ETHIOPIAN 
LEGEND AND HISTORY
 
by Rita Pankhurst

Women In Power

"Highly placed Ethiopian women, who combined worldliness, politics and religion are seen again and again in Ethiopian history. Rita Pankhurst recalls how women have been as important and influential as any man."

Lucy, alias Dinknesh - literally "you are lovely" - is the first woman in Ethiopian history, indeed in the history of the world. She was a dainty little person, an intrepid walker who came down from the trees some three million years ago in the Afar region of eastern Ethiopia. An American - French team of physical anthropologists led by Donald C. Johanson found 40 per cent of her skeleton in 1974, and named her Lucy after the Beatles song - though her Ethiopian descendants prefer to call her Dinknesh. The extent of her influence or power will forever remain a mystery.

Whereas Lucy's fossilised bones are real nothing is known of her story. But when it comes to the Queen of Sheba there is a great story yet no concrete evidence to support it. Do not deny her existence in Ethiopia, however.

One eminent Ethiopian historian, who referred to her at a public lecture in Addis Ababa as a legendary figure, was soon in trouble with the indignant audience.

According to the Ethiopian national epic, Kabra Negast , compiled in the 14th century, Makeda, the Queen of Sheba, who visited King Solomon in the Old Testament times, came from Tigre in Northern Ethiopia. She made the arduous journey across the desert and the Red Sea with her retinue and rich gifts to learn wisdom from the great king. Later, he beguiled her into sleeping with him and on her return, she gave birth to a son, Menelik the First. According to legend he was the founder of the Ethiopian Solomonic dynasty, which supposedly ended only with the deposition of Emperor Haile Selassie in 1974.

In Ethiopia it was considered quite natural that a woman should have held supreme power. Here was a woman to whom courage and endurance were attributed, who had intellectual and spiritual interests, and was willing to endure hardship in search of knowledge.

Two thousand years later, probably in the 10th century AD another legendary queen took the stage in Ethiopia. Although something of the Aksumite Empire she overthrew is known, from the inscriptions and monuments left behind, and from observations of foreign traders, there little more authentic information about her than about Makeda. There is evidence only that a rebellious queen led the forces which destroyed the old Christian order. Variously referred to as Gudit, Gwedit, Yodit, Judith, and as "Isat" - Amharic for fire - she was believed to be the founder of the Zagwe dynasty which rule​d for several hundred years.

Alleged by some to have followed an indigenous religion, and by others to have been of Jewish faith, she was, all agree, a fearsome warrior who led her troops to victory over the Christian Aksumites. Whether real or legendary, she remains an impressive example of a woman military leader who wielded power. 

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Ethiopia - Role of Women

Encyclopedia of Women's History - from Jone Johnson LewisThere have been few studies concerning women in Ethiopia, but many observers have commented on the physical hardship that Ethiopian women experience throughout their lives. Such hardship involves carrying loads over long distances, grinding corn manually, working in the homestead, raising children, and cooking. Ethiopian women traditionally have suffered sociocultural and economic discrimination and have had fewer opportunities than men for personal growth, education, and employment.


Even the civil code affirmed the woman's inferior position, and such rights as ownership of property and inheritance varied from one ethnic group to another. As in other traditional societies, a woman's worth is measured in terms of her role as a mother and wife. Over 85 percent of Ethiopian women reside in rural areas, where peasant families are engaged primarily in subsistence agriculture. Rural women are integrated into the rural economy, which is basically labor intensive and which exacts a heavy physical toll on all, including children. The revolution had little impact on the lives of rural women. Land reform did not change their subordinate status, which was based on deep-rooted traditional values and beliefs. An improvement in economic conditions would improve the standard of living of women, but real change would require a transformation of the attitudes of governments and men regarding women. 


There have been some changes for women in urban areas, where education, health care, and employment outside the home have become more available. Although a few women with higher education have found professional employment, most hold low-paying jobs. About 40 percent of employed women in urban areas worked in the service sector, mainly in hotels, restaurants, and bars, according to a 1976 government survey.


Employment in production and related areas (such as textiles and food processing) accounted for 25 percent of the female work force, followed by sales, which accounted for about 11 percent. The survey also showed that women factory workers in Addis Ababa earned about a quarter of the wages men earned for the same type of work. These differences existed despite a 1975 proclamation stipulating equal pay for equal work for men and women. Following the revolution, women made some gains in economic and political areas. The Revolutionary Ethiopia Women's Association (REWA), which claimed a membership of over 5 million, took an active part in educating women.


It encouraged the creation of women's organizations in factories, local associations, and in the civil service. Some women participated in local organizations and in peasant associations and kebeles. However, the role of women was limited at the national level. In 1984, for example, the government selected only one woman as a full member of the Central Committee of the WPE. Of the 2,000 delegates who attended the WPE's inaugural congress in 1984, only 6 percent were women. On a more positive note, the Mengistu regime could claim success in increasing literacy among women. The enrollment of women in primary and secondary schools increased from about 32 percent in 1974/75 to 39 percent in 1985/86, although the rate of enrollment of urban women far exceeded the rate for rural women.

​ Data as of 1991Source:Entry from: "Ethiopia: A Country Study" published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress.

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